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           Joseph Newman's Electric Motor

Table of Contents
Introduction
Simple Motor Design
Motor And Generator System
Conclusion
References.


Introduction
Electric motors can turn electrical energy into mechanical rotational energy. Electric currents can be send through a coil made of windings of copper wire. The electric current through the coil emits an electromagnetic field that can push and pull against a magnetic field of a magnet. By turning the electromagnetic field on and off at the appropriate times, the magnet can be made to rotate about a fixed axis of rotation. This is what happens in electric motor where magnetic forces impart rotation to magnets on a rotor. There was an electric motor called an "Energy Generating System" invented by Joseph Newman that has a high electrical energy efficiency. The motor consists of a coil of wire in the shape of a solonoid (hollow cylinder). The coil had a long length of copper wire wound into a hollow cylinder shape. A magnet at the centre of the coil could be made to rotate about a fixed axis when the electric currents into the coil were appropriately timed on and off. The north pole would be magnetically repelled by the stator coil's magnetic north pole while being magnetically attracted to the south pole of the same stator coil while the rotor spunned about a fixed axis. This electric motor was said to have a large electrical efficiency beyond conventional electric motors. If this motor design is very efficient it may perhaps likely receive electromagnetic field force boost and energy from the local space-time of its magnetic and electromagnetic fields. A small simple motor design of the type shown in figure 1 using this model was tested.


Simple Motor Design
Figure 1 shows a version of a simple energy generating system motor. It has a magnetized rotor 3 which can be rotated about its fixed axis 4 be electromagnetic field form a stator coil 2 that surrounds the rotor magnet 3. The rotor magnet 3 spins about a fixed axis of spin inside the electric input coil 2. Stator input coil 2 has applied to it an electric supply voltage V. The electric supply voltage V causes an electric current I through the coil 2. The current I through the coil 2 emits an electromagnetic field with intensity B. The stator coil 2 has copper windings with length h. Experiments showed that the input current I needed to produced rotor output torque T reduces as the electric input stator coil 2 coper wire length h reduces. Increasing the coil wire length h reduces the input current but also reduces the spin speed w of the rotor magnet 3 assembly. The electric otor version of figure 1 could operate with two small commercial 9 volt batteries. These two batteries connected in series produced an electric supply voltage of V= 18 volts. This small batteries give out a relativley small electric current I. Increasing the coil 2 wire length h does permit the motor to work at low spin speed w of 3 to 6 radians per second with low input current I input.< EM> Figure 2 shows the electronic schematic. Rotor magnet 3b is actually inside the core of coil 2. Commutator switch 5 which rotates with rotor 3 controls the electron current I direction through coil 2 wire.

 Small "Energy Generating System" Motor

   Figure 1.

Basic Electronic Schematic Drawing of Figure 1 Motor Design.
Electronic Schematic Drawing of Figure 1 Motor Design
   









         Figure 2.


The "Energy Generating System" electric motor does not produce energy or electrical power on its own. It may perhaps amplify electric energy due of its input coil's long wire length h and realtively small coil 2 inductance L. It amplifies allready existing electric energy because it still needs electric power VI input to run. The output voltage V is assumed to be:

  V= Bvhr 2,                                                 (1)

where B is magnetic field intensity at rotor magnet 3 surface, the v is the tangential velocity of magnetic pole from magnet 3 at radius location r, and h is the length of output coil 2 copper wire at radius location r. Coil wire length h=2rπ, π=3.141592654. The v= wr, where w is the spin speed of rotor 3 in radians per seccond about a fixed axis at centre of coil 2. Since the coil 2 has thickness and depth, the radius location r can be an average value of the distances to a coil wire loop and centre of rotor 3.
The electromagnetic field intensity B of the stator coil 2 is assumed to be determined be the electric current I, the velocity of the electrons of current I in the coil wire, the length h of the wire and the length z of the stator coil 2. Lenth z of coil 2 is parallel to the electromagnetic field direction of the same coil 2. The electromagnetic field intensity B at centre of the stator coil 2 electromagnetic pole is assumed to be:

  B=Ivzuh
Ai,                                               (2)

where variable Ai is the coil 2 core sectional area (the coil core area where rotor magnet 3 is).
The magnetic field strength H produced by the stator coil 2 magnetic field intensity B is assumed to be:

  H= BA ,                                                      (3)

where variable A is the cross sectional area of the coil that is perpendicular to the direction of B .
where constant u is the electromagnetic permeabilty of free vacuum space. The electron velocity v of electric supply current I is assumed to be proportional the electric supply or acceleration voltage V; v=V.

   Demonstration Video 1. Figure 1b Electric Motor Design Experiment:
   http:// /.WMV, file size:  kilobytes, (not available yet).

  Figure 3 shows another but larger version of the electric motor. The rotor 3 are ferrite magnets 3b within an output coil 2. With electrical input VI, it produced less rotor 3 torque T per input current I due to its low coil 2 copper wire length h, and larger sectional area A.
  This electric motor 2 could work as an electric generator also and could light the red light emitting diodes by just turning the magnet rotor 3 by hand alone. An electrical generator unit for producing a large output voltage with  slow spin speed of the rotor. Is difdcult to get a large output voltage froma conventional electric motor/generator. Spinning the rotor by hand for one  turn can produce a voltage that can arc between an air cap of about 1.5 to 2 millimetres. 

         Electric Motor 2
Newman Electric Motor
            Figure 3.

 
  Demonstration Video 2: Figure 2 Electric Generator Design Test:
    .WMV, file size: kilobytes (not available yet).

The electrical energy E from the output coil 2 is probably:

  E=BArws,                                                 (6)

where Ar is the cross sectional area of rotor magnet with magnetic field intensity B. Where s is the coil inductance L to volume v ratio: s=Lv. Variable w is rotor 3 spin speed, and L is the inductance of the output coil 2. L=ueuol2, where ue is the effective electromagnetic permeability of rotor magnet material (iron), ue=uB. The l=h is length of copper wire of output coil 2. The electric output voltage can produce an electric spark between close electrodes (about 0.2 to 0.8 millimetre apart) when the rotor magnet 3b was rotated manually inside the core of coil 2. The small output current I=q/t producing the output voltage V was difficult to detect with a d'Arsonval electric current meter. The output voltage V from the coil 2 is probably: V=Bw1/2l. Longer coil wire lengths l seems to be able to produce a larger electromotive force V. Then increasing the coil inductance L increases V. Then output voltage V from coil may be in equation:

  qV =Bv(L(uuo))t,                                         (7)
  u=1/B</EM>,

where v is the relative average tangential velocity of the coil 2 wire. The q is electron charge or charge flow in the coil wire producing voltage V . The B=||B||, with t =1 second the rotor magnet 3 rotation duration time. The u is the electromagnetic permeability of the coil 2 core which is also in magnet 3b. The v=wra, where r a is the average radius location of the coil 2 wire layers or wire loops.
  The output current I from output coil 2 is assumed to be:

  I∝(HA/L)∂HA/∂t,
  H A=A ,
  (∂HA/∂t)∝HAw,

where ∂H A/∂t is the rate of change of magnetic field strength HA of rotor magnet 3b going through coil 2. Variable L is the inductance of output coil 2. The symbol  is magnetic flux line density at a magnetic pole of magnet 3b and A is the surface area of the same pole. The magnetic flux line density  can be determined by simply counting the number of magnetic flux lines per square millimetre. This can be done by placing some iron power on a piece of paper over a magnet's magnetic pole. The distances between adjacent magnetic flux lines can be measured with a plastic caliper. From this information, the magnetic flux line density can be calculated.
Examples: B=0.01 tesla, l=100 metres, u= 500, u o=4π10-7 tesla/metre2, A r=0.0013 metre2≈A, w=1 radian/second, q=0.001 coulomb. Coil 2 in figure 2 had about: N=Nn= turns of 0.00075 metre diameter wire, turns per coil length N h=1333 turns per metre per layer, coil layers per coil radius r section X=1000 layers/metre, 0.080 by 0.062 metre core sectional area, coil length h= 0.067 metre, r a=0.04 metre,
∂HA/∂t=1.10-6 magnetic flux lines/metre2, L= 0.6 henry, q =1.6010-19 coulomb. Vi=V.


Motor Input Impedance
Phase angle between the peaks of input voltage Vi and input current I is: tan (XLn/Rn)=an.
(an+1 - an)/(Nn+1- Nn)=0.0 radian per turn. Input coil 2 with inductive reactance XLn and coil wire resistance Rn of coil wire turns Nn .


Motor And Generator System
Use an electric motor to drive a slightly larger electric generator in figure 4. Bearing is needle point bearing 6 on a glass journal bearing 8. Commutator switch is light controlled. Upper rotor magnet 2 of electric motor is for input coil 3. Lower rotor magnet 4 is for output coil 5. Flywheel 8 provides some gyroscopic stability to the rotor assembly 9.
R i=100 ohms is the input reflected resistance of input coil 3. R o is reflected output reistance of coil 5. R i<Ro=120 ohms.

    Figure 4.





                       Figure 7.

Figure 7 has supply voltage V CC=+12 volts, R E=10 ohms, R x=1.0 kilohm, R pr2=100 ohms.


Conclusion



References
1. Joseph Newman's motor at: http://www..



June 15, 2004. Revised in January 9, 2011; March 4, 2014..