StationaryMagnetic Field and Coil Electric Generators

Table of Contents
Introduction
Stationary Magnetic Field and Coil Electric Generator
Solid State Generator Y Test
Electric Motor Type Y
Principle Of Magnetic Amplification
Magnetic Field Direction Controlling Gate
Conclusion
References.

Introduction
Attempts were made to try to control the flow directions of magnetic fields from magnets using electromagnetic fields. This magnetic field direction control may perhaps be part of the operation or behavior of a free energy, or over unity device. The electromagnetic fields such as in and emitted by  iron rods were to attract magnetic fields of nearby magnets 2 and at the same time (the electromagnet) magnetically repel magnetic fields of magnets 4 to control the flow of magnetic fields of these magnets in iron rods or bars. The electromagnetic field from a coil produced by an electrical current through the coil wire would then draw and guide the magnetic field from a magnet 2 at the pole of this electromagnet. The electromagnetic field in the iron (of electromagnet) would then be reinforced in strength with the magnet's (magnet 2) magnetic field. The electromagnetic field and magnetic field both would follow the same path through the solid iron as a summed electromagnetic and magnetic fields. A change in motion of a mass like a magnet 4 is an indication of electrical energy input. By combining the magnetic and electromagnetic field magnitudes without mechanical motion, some small amount of electrical energy was to be produced from the local space-time of the magnetic fields of the device and due to the increased magnetic field strength in the iron. Stationary magnetic field generators may perhaps be free energy or over unity devices. It is called a stationary magnetic field generator, because there are no moving generator parts in the stationary magnetic field motor to produce changing magnetic field amplitudes. Some energy from generator's local four dimensional space-time may be transfered into three dimensional space-time by and in its magnetic field B. This page may perhaps show some magnetic and electrical devices for doing this.

Stationary Magnetic Field and Coil Electric Generator
In the stationary or motionless magnetic field and coil electric generator abreviated s.m.f.c. generator, strips of steel or iron sheets pass between the stationary magnet magnetic poles and the poles of an iron core of an output coil. The metal strips redirect the magnetic
field of the magnet away from the iron core of the output coil. The redirected magnetic field then flows away from the output coil core which produces a changing magnetic field intensity in the coil core. This changing magnetic field intensity in the output coil core induces and electric voltage and current from the coil. Figure 1 shows the basic design of the electric generator. It has a stationary magnet 2, the iron strips 3, the output coil iron core 4 and the output coil 5. The stationary magnet 2 provides the magnetic field intensity B. The iron strips 3 can absorb and redirect the magnetic field with intensity B from the output coil core 4 as shown in figure 1(a). When the strips are not
present between the poles of magnet 2 and core 3, the magnetic field intensity B follows the path through the iron core 4 of the output coil 5 as shown in figure 1(b). The output coil 5 consists of a number of windings of copper magnet wire.

  S.m.f.c. Electric Generator








                Figure 1.


The iron strips 3 are designed in the form of a rotor as shown in figure 1(c).

Solid State Generator Y Test
This page may perhaps show a method for generating electricity with magnets and electromagnets without moving mechanical parts.

The solid state generator is designed to try to control the flow direction of magnetic fields by electromagnetic fields such that the electromagnetic field amplitude is reinforced by the magnetic field amplitude. In the solid state electric generator, there is not relative motion between the stator magnet and the output coil. The flow of the stator magnet magnetic field is controlled by an electromagnetic field from a relatively stationary input coil.
Direct electrical current may produce an electromagnetic field that is stronger with the magnet.
Figures 2, 3 and 4 shows the basic design of an experiment for controlling the flow direction of a magnetic field using an electromagnet. It has stator cylindrical magnet 2 and stator electromagnet 3. It has movable disk magnet 4.

 Simple Magnet and Electromagnet Stator Actuator Test Design
Magnetic Device Y
                   Figure 2.

The disk magnet 4 is placed over the rounded iron magnetic pole 6 of electric input electromagnet 3. Stator magnet 2 can be moved closer or further from the other magnetic pole of electromagnet 3. The magnet poles N and S directions are as shown in figures 2, 3 and 4. Stator magnet 2 has length Ls and diameter Ds. Electromagnet 3 has soft iron core diameter Dc and length Le. Electromagnet 3 has copper coil 5 which receives electric current I from an electric current supply 8.
Demonstration video 2 shows an experiment of possible magnetic force direction control and amplification using an electromagnet of figure 2 design. In the video 2, the electromagnet 3 without magnet 2 is activated with current I, and magnet 4 does not move much. The current meter in the background shows the current I magnitudes. Then magnet 2 is moved closer to electromagnet 3 and magnet 4 moves with much larger magnitudes with current I changes. Next magnet 2 is moved, without the electromagnet 3 electromagnetic fields. Movement of magnet 4 were less. The magnet 4 movements are larger. The electromagnetic field from electromagnet 3 is not sufficient to move the magnet 4 much, but when stator magnet 2 is moved closer to electromagnet 3, the movable magnet 4 can be made to move. This indicates that the electromagnetic field of electromagnet 3 can control the flow direction of magnetic field of magnet 2 in such as way as to strengthen the magnet force from the electromagnet 3 that moves magnet 4.

 
Demonstration Video 2: Magnet and Electromagnetic Actuator Test:
    solidStateGenerator.WMV, file size: 438 kilobytes.


The differences in current I between without and with magnet 2 are not very noticeable in the video 1. Adding magnet 2 to electromagnet 3 does decrease the magnetic attraction force between magnet 4 and electromagnet 3. When magnet 4 is replaced by a piece of iron that is not initially magnetized, the magnetic field intensity of magnet 2 and electromagnetic field intensity of electromagnet does add by about:
 
 B=Be+Bs.                                (5)

When an electromagnet like 3 is magnetized by a magnetic field from an external magnet like 2, the impedance Z of the electromagnet is expected to decrease. This decrease in impedance Z is assumed to be due to the magnetic particles of the iron core of the electromagnet being able to rotate less due to the incoming magnetic field of magnet 2. The impedance of the electromagnet 3 copper coil is Z=(X2+R2)1/2, where R is the resistance of the copper wire of the coil 9 of electromagnet 3. R=47 ohms in this design. The X=2×π×f×L is the reactive impedance of the coil 9 of electromagnet 3. The f is the electrical frequency of the input current I into coil 9, L is the inductance of the coil 9 of electromagnet 3, and π=3.141592654. Coil 9 has N number of turns of copper wire that has enamel coating. Ammeter 11 displays the electric current I=V÷Z from battery 8 to coil 9, where V is the electric supply 8 voltage. V=9.0 volts. The electromagnetic field intensity of electromagnet 3 electromagnetic field is Be, and magnetic field intensity of magnet 2 magnetic field is Bs. The electromagnetic field intensity be of electromagnet draws in the magnetic field intensity Bs of stator magnet 2 in such a way as to increase the magnetic field intensity B of the electromagnet 3 by B=Be+Bs. The B can be the combined magnetic field intensity of Be and Bs at the pole 6 of electromagnet 3. Ls is 0.1 to 0.12 metre. Figures 3 and 4 shows the assumed and approximate magnetic field flux line patterns in and around magnet 2 and electromagnet 3. In figure 3(a) the electromagnet has no electromagnetic field intensity Be when there is no electric current I in coil 9. Magnet 4 attracts with force Fm to the iron core 10. In figures 3(a) and 3(c), the coil 9 are not drawn in figures. In figure 3(b), electric current I goes through coil 9 and as a result magnetic field intensity Be is at iron core 10 pole 6. Magnet 4 is magnetically repelled by magnetic force F. In figure 3(c) the magnetic field lines (blue colored dashed lines) from magnet 2 goes through some of the iron core 10 of electromagnet 3 and then some of the lines 14 may come from the iron core 10. Very little magnetic lines of force reach movable magnet 4 and magnetic field intensity from electromagnet 3 is B<Bs. Only some of the magnetic lines of force from magnet 2 reaches the magnetic field of movable magnet 4 in figure 3(c). The magnetic field from magnet 2 that goes into iron core 10 flows mainly out the sides of iron core 10 in figure 3(c). In figure 4(a) when there is an electromagnetic field intensity Be in electromagnet 3 due to electric current I, more of the magnetic lines of force 15 from magnet 2 stays in iron core 10 and reaches movable magnet 4. The magnetic field intensity B working against the magnetic field intensity Bm of movable magnet 4 is now: B=Be+Bs which produced magnetic repulsion force F near pole 6 in figure 4(a). The electromagnetic field with intensity Be from electromagnet 3 and Bs of stator magnet 2 sum. The magnetic field intensity Bs is likely to reduce the magnetic attraction forces between iron core 10 and Bm which allows the larger motion of magnet 4. The energy efficiency e is assumed to be:

  e=(F×s)÷(Fe×se).                               (6)

 cE=F×s=Fe×se.                                  (7)

Where Fe is axial magnetic force between electromagnet 3 and magnet 4 alone and dFe is change in electromagnetic force by electromagnetic field from electromagnet 3 alone. Axial magnetic force is in the direction of the magnetic field direction. The se is motion of magnet 4 while receiving change in force dFe. The s is movement of magnet 4 while under the summed change in force dF. Fe=A4×Bm×k4÷r2. With A4 the surface area of magnet 4 and length k4 of magnet 4, and distance r between the magnets.

              Magnetic Flux Line Patterns Without and With Be
   Magnetic Field Patterns
                           Figure 3.

               Magnetic Flux Line Pattern With Intensities Bs and Be and Flux Line Vectors
Magnetic Fields and vectors
                              Figure 4.

Figures 3 and 4 shows magnetic flux line direction vectors Xsi and Xei.  Figure 4(b) shows a two dimensional Cartesian coordinate graph of the resultant vector Xi produced by summing vectors Xsi and Xei. The lengths of the arrows represent the magnetic flux density amount at a point i in magnetic field, while the direction of the arrow in the graph represents the direction of the magnetic flux line at the same point i. Magnetic flux line density and direction vectors Xsi and Xei are summed in figure 4(b) graph, but the resultant vector Xi is controlled by vector Xei. Perhaps Xi=b×Xsi×Xsei. This may be magnetic field vector amplification of Xsi to Xi. Magnetic field directions and intensities are manipulated by other electromagnetic or magnetic fields like Xei at one location. The Xi vector (arrow) is more horizontal than Xsi which produces larger magnetic repulsion forces F between B and Bm at pole 6. The phenomenon of a magnetic field direction being controlled by a weaker electromagnetic or magnetic field can be called magnetic field vector amplification.
Iron core 10 of electromagnet 3 has a large electromagnetic permeability uc.
The magnetic amplification A of the device is assumed to be:

 A=uc×Ds2÷Dc2=B÷Be∝dF÷dFe.                     (8)
 A=uc×N×Ds2÷(L10×Dc2)=B÷Be∝dF÷dFe.  

With length L10 of iron core 10, and N the number of copper wire turns of coil 9. Perhaps in part:

 B=(Be+BsBei                                 (9)

at magnetic pole 6. Exponent i is : 0<i<1. Then magnetic force F against magnet 4 from magnets 2 and electromagnet 3 is:

 F=B×Bm÷r2.                                   (10)

The r is the distance between pole 6 surface and magnet 4 surface.
The change in force:

 dF=dB×Bm÷r2                                                  (11)

appears to be larger with the inclusion of magnet 2 magnetic field intensity Bs. This may be due to the larger magnetic attraction force between Be and Bm. From video 2 there can be seen that the magnetic repulsion forces between Be and Bm alone (without stator magnet 2) are small, and that the difference between magnetic and electromagnetic field intensities B and Be (with stator magnet 2) is relatively large. Magnetic field intensity Be produced by the electric current I in the electromagnet 3 core 10 appears to draw some of the magnetic field intensity Bs of the stator magnet 2 through iron core 10 to the magnetic pole 6 of electromagnet 3 where magnet 4 is closely at.
Magnetic force F between magnet 4 and iron core 10 may be: F2=uc×Bm÷r2, where u is electromagnetic permeability of iron core 10. The internal energy or potential between iron core 10 and magnet 4 may perhaps be: Ei=F2×se2 where Ei is a constant which is different than the energy equation (6). The se2=se.
  Demonstration video 3 shows an experiment using the same magnetic and electromagnetic actuator design as in figure 2. In video 3 the magnet on weight scale is first pushed magnetically in verticle directions by electromagnet 3 (beige colored part). Then the cylindrical rod magnet ( black colored disks) was added over electromagnet 3  pole producing larger swings of weight indication on scale.  In this case, the magnetic repulsion forces between magnet 4 and electromagnet 3, and electromagnet 3 with magnet 2 are measured by a weight scale. The dFe is a small change in magnetic force of electromagnet 3 alone on magnet 4. In video 3 there can see the small change in force dFe with electromagnet 3 alone. Then a larger change in force dF with magnet 2 at other pole of electromagnet 3 can be seen. There can be seen that the change in magnetic force dF with magnet 2 is larger than dFe with only electromagnet 3. Electromagnet 3 does seem to control the magnetic flux line flow of stator magnet 2. The small cylindrical black colored object is ferrite magnet 4 with electromagnet 3 about 0.025 metre above it. Demonstration video 3b is similar as video 3 except there is a smaller distance between the pole 6 and magnet 4.

  
Demonstration Video 3: Magnet and Electromagnetic Actuator Force Test:
       MagneticGenerators/dFe2.WMV, File size: 530 kilobytes.

   Demonstration Video 3b: Magnet and Electromagnetic Actuator Force Test:
       dFe4.WMV, File size: 518 kilobytes.


The weight scale meter near centre of the video 3 can be made to change through a larger range by electromagnet 3 with magnet 2 in use. Moving electromagnet 3 iron 10 alone over magnet 4 on weight scale did not show a noticeable weight or force Fe change. This would indicate that the dF>dFe or increased motion of magnet 4 was not due to reduced magnetic attraction between iron 10 of electromagnet 3 and magnet 4. This may indicate that F×s and Fe×se  from above equation (7) are not equal. A question is: will the larger weight or force swings increase the electrical efficiency of the generator Y design? Larger weight or force F variations may indicate that:

  F×s>Fe×se.                                        (12)

The current meter on the left side is ammeter 11 and shows input current I into coil 9. Sometimes the weight scale meter does not return to its orginal positions indicating that the iron 10 has some magnetic memory.
Using calculus integration mathematics, the potential energy difference of equation (12) becomes:

 E=∫ F×ds=∫ k×s×ds =(k÷2)×(sf2-si2)
 Ee=∫ Fe×dSe=∫ k×se×dSe=(k÷2)×(sef2-sei2).              (13)

The symbol ∫ is the calculus integration sign. The k is the spring constant of the spring 17 of the weight scale 16 that works against the magnetic forces F and Fe. The tension force of the spring 17 of the weight scale 16 on which magnet 4 rests on is made mathematically equal to F or Fe. Variable sei is initial position of magnet 4 which is also the stretch distance of the spring 17 with spring constant k. This is initial displacement with magnetic field intensity Be alone. Fe=Be×Bm÷r2. Variable Sef is the final position of magnet 4 with magnetic field intensity be alone from electromagnet 3 alone. Variable Si is position of magnet 4 and stretch distance of metal spring of weight scale with magnetic field intensity Bs only of stator magnet 2. Variable sf is position of magnet 4 due to magnetic force F caused by magnetic field intensity B=(Be+BsBei when stator magnet 2 and electromagnet 3 are both used to produced a magnetic repulsion force F on magnet 4. Examples: k=3×101 newton/metre, sei=0.0 metre, sef=0.0017 metre, si=0.0025 metre, sf=0.0055 metre of video 3b magnetic actuator design. Copper coil 9 outer diameter Do=0.040 metre, uc=300 to 500, and core 10 diameter Dc=0.016 metre. The E and Ei are expected to be equal, but seem not to be equal with Ei=Ee. Possibly E=Ei+Ee, but where does Ei go to? Perhaps the energy E is also E= , A4=2.8×10-4 metre2, k4=0.0096 metre.
F×ds=(m÷2)×v2, where m is the mass of magnet 4 and v is the average vertical velocity of the magnet 4. The moving speed v may also be an indication of energy E as well as its motion magnitude s. The speed v of motion may be measured by counting the amount of times distances s and se are done within a certain time period t. The time period for 20 s span motions is t= , and for 20 se motions is te= . The m=0.0131 kilogram. The oscillation frequency is f=1÷T, and distance s moved should be proportional to average velocity v. The T=t÷20 cycles, and Te=te÷20 cycles. The device may be working as an electromagnetic field vector or intensity and direction amplifier. The magnetic field flux line directions from a magnet like 2 may be redirected by another electromagnetic or magnet field like Be in such a manner as to sum the magnetic field strengths of both magnetic fields. There seem to be little required electromagnetic field intensities to re-direct a magnetic field polarities or flux lines from a magnet like 2. Figure 5 may show the assumed and inaccurate magnet 4 displacements se and s, and input currents I versus time t. Figure 5(a) shows the displacements se of magnet 4 and input current I without stator magnet 2. Figure 5(b) shows the displacements s and input current I versus time t with magnet 2.

             Magnet 4 Displacements s And Input Currents I Versus Time t
Displacements and Currents Versus Time
                   Figure 5.

The currents I amplitudes in figures 5(a) and 5(b) are similar, but current I in figure 5(b) exists a little longer in time t. There is a minimum input current Imin level to move movable magnet 4 from the iron core 10 of electromagnet 3, which is: Imin=Bm÷(Bs×l), where l is coil 9 copper wire length that carries the input current I. Figure 6 shows a similar design to the design of figures 2, 3 and 4. Figure 6 design has a stator magnet 2 and and input electromagnet 3. The coil 9 of electromagnet 3 is slightly smaller in size relative to the iron core 10 diameter Dc than the design of figures 2 and 3. A movable magnet 4 operates as a projectile. The input coil receives a larger current I relative to the size of the coil 3.

  Electromagnet Actuator For Larger relative Input Current I
   Figure 6.

Electromagnet 3 coil 9 has about N=400 turns of copper wire, with coil 9 copper wire resistance R=4 ohms, and Dc=0.006 metre, l=45 metres. The length L4 of the movable cylindrical shaped magnet 4 must be large enough. Demonstration video 4 shows the magnetic actuator of figure 6 in operation. This magnetic actuator is also a magnet accelerator. The movable magnet 4 travels vertically further with the magnet 2 than without magnet 2 with electromagnet 3 is energized with input current I. This and the vertical speed of magnet 4 indicates that the magnetic actuator will work for smaller time periods T and Te of figure 5 graph. The ammeter at lower left on the screen shows the input current I. In video 4, the current I is initially applied to coil 9 (the copper colored wire), and little movement of magnet 4 is seen. Then when magnet 2 is placed underneath electromagnet 3 of coil 9, magnet 4 is quickly electromagnetically repelled by electromagnet 3 iron core 10. The lower magnet 2 reduces the magnetic attraction force between magnet 4 and iron core 10 which permits magnet 4 to be pushed away by electromagnetic field of electromagnet 3. Maximum current I in both tests seems to be about I=  ampere.

 
Demonstration Video 4: Magnet and Electromagnetic Actuator Force Test 
   Using Larger Relative Input Current I:
       magnetLauncher.WMV, File size: 265 kilobytes.


Without magnet 2 there was less change in motion of magnet 4.
Smaller time periods T and Te appear to require larger input currents I. I=1÷T. Adding stator magnet 2 underneath electromagnet 3 reduces the magnetic attraction force between movable magnet 4 and iron core 10 of electromagnet. This enables magnet 4 to leave core 10 easier, but the purpose of video 4 experiment is to see if smaller time periods Te between peaks of se will also work. The vertical upwards acceleration ay of magnet 4 in video 4 at a moment of time is assumed to be:

  ay=(Fe-(Fm-F2)-Fwm,

where F2 is the magnetic repulsion force between magnets 2 and 4 at magnetic pole 6. The m is the mass of magnet 4, and Fw=m×g is the weight of the magnet 4. The Fe can be the magnetic repulsion force between magnet 4 and electromagnet 3 alone when input current I is applied is applied to electromagnet 3 coil 9. Force F2 reduces Fm. Examples: m=3×10-2 kilogram, g=9.81 newtons/kilogram, F2=0.01 newton, ay=1 metre/second2.
  When a smaller magnet 3 with a stronger magnetic field intensity B3 is close to another larger magnet 2 with a weaker magnetic field intensity B2, the smaller magnet's magnetic field attraction force may overcome the weaker magnetic field repulsion force as shown in figures 8(a), 8(b) and demonstration video 5. The smaller magnet 3 will be magnetically attracted to magnet 2 ferrite material even if magnets are at magnetic repulsion orientation (north to north poles N). Magnetic field intensity B3 magnetic flux lines (green colored lines) of smaller magnet 3 push aside the magnetic flux line (blue colored dashed lines) of magnetic field intensity B2 of the larger magnet 2. The magnetic lines of force shown as dashed lines are at an imaginary plane 4 intersecting magnet 2. B3>1.5×B2, B2=0.01 tesla. Figures 8(a) and 8(b) may show a more correct model of magnetic field flow patterns between repelling magnetic fields when one magnetic field intensity (B3) is much stronger. the stronger magnetic field intensity like B3 dominates over a weaker magnetic field intensity like B2. Figure 8(c) may show a less correct model of magnetic field flux line flow directions for B3>1.2×B2. The repelling magnetic lines of force are bend away from each other by each other. Magnet 2 diameter D2=0.04 metre with length L2=0.008 metre, magnet 3 diameter D3=0.003 metre with length L3=0.0015 metre.

      Magnetic Flux Lines Between Magnetic Fields Of Different Intensities
Repelling Magnetic Fields
                                     Figure 8.

   Demonstration Video 5. Figure 8 Magnets Experiment:
    magneticgenerators/ .WMV,
     file size: kilobytes, (not available yet).

When the distances r between the magnets are further, there is some magnetic repulsion forces. When the distance r is shorter, magnetic attraction between magnet 3 and magnet 2 iron can dominate the magnetic repulsion force. This type of magnetic lines of force behavior must be taken into consideration when designing a magnetic actuator.

  Figure 9 may show a superior and similar design to figures 2, 3, and 4 design. In this similar the design, both magnetic poles of stator magnet 2 are used. In this design the stator magnet 2 has a u shaped design. Stator magnet 2 consists of two magnets 2a and 2b and an iron magnetic flux guide 2c. Movable magnet 4 also has its south S and north n poles used. Movable magnet 4 has two magnets 4a , 4b and an iron magnetic flux guide 4c. Electromagnet 3 now has two iron cores 10a and 10b and two corresponding input coils 9a and 9b. Electromagnet 3 also has a third curved shaped iron core 10c that is between cores 10a and 10b. Between cores 10c, and 10a is an air gap with span y.

   Dual Pole Magnet and Electromagnet Stator Actuator Design
   Figure 9.

The electromagnet 3 core section 10b needs an air gap span y of sufficient width, because the electromagnet repulsion force at 20 are not easily redirected. Magnetic repulsion force vectors may not be easily re-directed. as shown in figure 10. In figure 10(a) the magnets are far apart with magnetic repulsion force vectors as shown. When the magnets are brought closer together, the magnetic repulsion forces or force vectors do not vary much.

  Magnetic Repulsion Force Vectors
      Figure 10.

  Electric current Io induction by magnetic and electromagnetic fields may be: Io=Lr×dH/dt, where Io is varying direct current. Where H=B×π×Dr2, Lr is inductance of output or secondary coil 11, and Dr is diameter of secondary iron core 12 of coil 11.
  Magnetic reluctance is the ability of a ferrous materials to resist the flow of magnetic fields through it. Reluctance is the opposition produced by a magnetic substance to magnetic flux; specifically the magnetic potential difference to the corresponding magnetic flux in the same material. In this case the magnetic reluctance ґ has units of metre2 tesla/newton. Figure 10b may show a design of a magnetic reluctance meter that uses these units of measure. It has a stator magnet 2 with magnetic field intensity β and surface area A2 at its magnetic pole. A rotor 3 can be used to measure the magnetic force. Magnetic materials (rods) 4 and 5 under test which transfer the magnetic field from magnet 2 to rotor 3.

 A Magnetic Reluctance meter.
  Figure 10b.

The magnetic reluctance per length Lm of material has units of metre3 tesla/newton. Imaginary examples: β=0.02 tesla, A2=0.001 metre2, ґ =1 metre2 testa/newton, ґ /Lm=0.01 metre testa/newton.  


Electric Motor Type Y
The magnetic actuator effects and design of figures 2 through 4 can be used and made into an electric motor design called electric motor type Y. The movable magnet 4 of figures 2 through 4 can become part of a piston and crank shaft assembly 16 in figure 11(a) which turns the reciprocating motion of magnet 4 into rotary motion. Magnet 4 is attached to aluminum piston 18. The piston transfers the magnetic repulsion force F causes by electromagnet 3 and magnet 4 onto flywheel 20 via cranks shaft 19. The electric motor type Y of figure 11(a) has similar parts to the design of figures 2 and 3. The motor has stator electromagnet 2 and stator magnet 2. A commutator and switch assembly 17 produces the required current input I timing T. Magnetic repulsion force F=Bm×(Bs+Ber2. Magnetic field from stator 2 can produce magnetic repulsion forces with the piston magnets 4 through iron core 10, and reduce magnetic attraction force between piston magnet 4 and electromagnet 3 iron core 10. There may be a small air gap z between electromagnet 3 iron core 10 and stator magnet 2 to help reduce these magnetic repulsion forces as the magnet 4 approach the electromagnet 3 pole 6. Figure 11(b) shows the electric circuit schematic diagram of the coil 9 input circuit. Input voltage V into input coil 9 can be V=+18 to +20 volts.

  Magnet Motor Type Y
  Figure 11.

Demonstration video 5 will likely show an electric motor type Y test of figure 11.

  Demonstration Video 6. Electric Motor Type Y  Experiment:
  http://www.machines-x.info/magneticgenerators/ .WMV,
    file size: kilobytes, (not available yet).


Principle of Magnetic Amplification
Magnets of increasing size but with similar magnetic field intensities B are permitted to rotate about a fixed axis each. Figure 13 shows the design of magnets of increasing sizes as a linear array of cylindrical magnets or linear array of magnet rotors of magnets of decreasing size. The linear array of rotors has magnets 2, 3, 4, and 5 of increasing size that are permitted to spin about their fixed axii 7a, 7b, 7c, and 7d respectively. The magnet spin speed is w. The rotating magnet array should have at least 4 magnets which have their magnet pole axii being able to be aligned as these spin at speed w. The axii of rotation of the magnets are parallel to each other and on the same imaginary horizontal line. The magnetic poles like N or S of ferrite magnet 5 can attract magnetic poles of adjacent magnets like 4. Rotating magnet 5 abouts is spin axis 7d can rotate magnet 4 due to attracting magnetic forces between the two. The same occurs between magnets 4 and 2 and then also between magnets 3 and 2. Rotating the largest magnet 5 will rotate then rotate the smallest magnet 2 via magnets 4 and 3. Rotating magnet 5 by applying forward torque Tsf can rotate magnets 2, but rotating magnet 2 with forward torque Tof may not rotate large magnet 5.

                   Linear Array Of Magnet Rotors
Linear Array Of Magnet Rotors
                            Figure 13.

Rotating the largest magnet 5 rotates the second magnet (second largest magnet 4). This second magnet 4 in turn rotates the third larger magnet 3 beside it. Rotating the smallest magnet 2 has very little affect on the largest magnet 5 rotation. The entire assembly has aluminum support 6 in which the physical axis or axle 9 of magnet 5 can be allowed to rotate in. Frame 8 holds the magnet 5 onto axle 9. The frame 6 is not shown in the figures on the left of the draft figure 13. If Tof is small, then the rotor magnets 2 through 5 rotate in unisen and the Tof=Tsf.
Magnetic field strength at the pole of each cylindrical shaped rotor magnet like 2 and 3 is:

 Hn=B×rn2×π÷4,


for n=1 to i magnets. Where rn is the radius of the nth magnet of the array. The larger magnet 5 has a larger magnetic field strength H5 than H3 of magnet 3, and so magnet 5 is more difficult to rotate with magnet 3 via magnet 4. Magnet 3 cannot rotate magnet 5 via magnet 4, because the magnetic attraction is stronger between relatively larger magnets 4 and 5 than between magnets 3 and 4. The difference between magnetic field strengths H3 and H5 in the magnet array may perhaps cause magnetic amplification. Examples: r5=0.013 metre, B=0.01 tesla, w=6 radians/second, π=3.141592654, i=4 magnets, r3=0.009 metre, Tof=Tsf=0.0001 newton metre.
  Can use an electrical transformer and replace the magnetic field with an electromagnetic field. The affects are opposite to the magnets of figure 13. Figure 14 shows and electrical transformer design. This transformer T is called a variable or non-uniform core sectional area transformer. The iron core sectional areas in the primary and secondary coils need not be the same. It has a toroid shaped iron core 2 with core length or average circumference c. The core 2 has two different sectional area dimensions. Primary coil 3 has coil core 4 sectional area Ap. Secondary coil 5 has iron core 6 sectional area Ao.

Electrical Transformer With Two Sectional Area Dimensions
   Figure 14.

 Apþp=Aoþs,
 þs/þp=R,

where þp is the electromagnetic flux line density of primary coil electromagnetic field in primary coil core sectional area Ap. The þs is the electromagnetic flux line density in secondary coil core sectional area Ao of secondary coil. By placing iron filings or dust on magnet poles, observations have shown that the magnetic flux density þp or þs is  and is  of core length c. The peak output voltage Vs from the secondary coil is:

 VsVp×ls÷lp

for large Ii;

 VsVp×Ns÷Np,

where Vp is the peak input voltage into primary coil, lp is length of coil wire of primary coil and ls is length of secondary coil wire. Ii is the primary coil 3 input signal current. Np is primary coil 3 number of wire turns. Ns is number of secondary coil 5 wire turns. Induced output voltage Vs with no load RL current Ii appears to be: VsLs×Ii×dIi/dt. Magnetic field strength Hp in primary coil 3 iron core 4 is:

 Hp=B×Ap.

Magnetic field strength Hs in secondary coil 5 core 6 is:

 Hs=B×Ao,

where B is electromagnetic field intensity in iron core 2 of transformer.
Ao>Ap. This design works on the idea that the magnetic field intensity B from a magnet's pole does decrease when the opposite magnetic pole is attracted to a large piece of iron. A larger Ao does not diminish B in primary coil core sectional area Ap. Primary coil 3 has input impedance:

 Zpuo×u×(Ap/PpNp2÷hp,

where Pp=2wp+2dp is the perimeter of area Ap.
secondary coil 5 impedance:

 Zsuo×u×(Ao/PsNs2÷hs,

for iron core electromagnetic permeability u>100. Where hp is length of primary coil 3, and hs is length of secondary coil 5. Ps=2ws+2ds is the perimeter of area Ao=ws×ds. ws=ds.
Pseudo energy efficiency constant may be:

 sE=(Hs×∂Hs/∂t)1/2÷(Hp×∂Hp/∂t)1/2,

with change ∂þs of flux line density þs during time ∂t. With change ∂þp of flux line density þp during time ∂t. Figure 15 shows one design. It is similar to the design of figure 14 except the iron core is an H-core shape. The primary coils 3a and 3b working as one coil 3 have sectional areas Ap<Ao. Ap=wp×dp. The area of a rectangle like Ap is largest when the side: wp=dp. The secondary coil 5 is in the middle in the middle section of the transformer T.

  Variable Sectional Area Transformer With An H-Core Shape
   Figure 15.

Vp and Vs are forward voltages when the primary coil 3 is the input coil, and secondary coil 5 is the output coil as normal. Vrp is the reverse voltage from the primary coil when the primary coil 3 becomes the output voltage and Vrp is the reverse voltage into the secondary coil when secondary coil 5 becomes the input coil of the transformer. Vrp can be less than Vs even when Ns=Np=200 turns. Ns=Np=200, 300, and 350 turns. Demonstration video 8 shows this using the design of figure 15. The digital multimeter on the left back in video 8 measures input voltage Vp=5.5 and 6.3 volts-peak. The green screen in the middle shows the input currents Ii=1.2 ampere-peak and then Iri=0.48 ampere-peak. The meter on the right shows Vs=9.5 volts-peak and then Vrp=2 volts-peak. The H-core transformer T is shown last in video 8.

  Demonstation Video 8: Forward Voltage Vs, Reverse Voltage Vrp 
  and Input Voltage: reverseVoltage.WMV, file size: 260 kilobytes
.

Voltage Vrp should be equivalent to counter voltage in primary coil on forward voltage Vp. Vp=5.6 volts-peak as sine wave frequency f=60.0 hertz. Vrp=2 volts-peak, Vs=9.5 volts-peak. Ii=4×0.15 v-p÷0.5 ohm=1.2 ampere-peak. The electric input current when transformer T is reverse driven (with secondary coil 5 as electric input) is: Iri=1.6×0.15 V-p÷0.5 ohm=0.48 ampere. Zs÷Zp=Iri÷Ii. hs=hp=0.022 metre.
  
 Vp÷Vrp=Gv×(Zp÷Zs).

Ii=(Vp-VrpZp. Examples: Ap=0.001 metre2, ∂þp=þp=1000 magnetic lines of force/metre2, Ao=0.002 metre2, ∂t=0.01 second, þs=
þs, Vp=9 volts-peak, lp=ls=5 metres, B=0.01 tesla-peak, Hs=∂Hs, Hp=∂Hp, Ii=dIi=1 ampere, ∂t=dt=1÷(4×F), f=60.0 hertz, secondary coil inductance Ls=0.3 henry, Np=Ns=200 turns, u=500.
  Can try to see the change ΔIi in input current Ii as the output current Is is changed by ΔIs of the design of figure 15 and video 8. Demonstration video 9 shows a sample test. The upper oscilloscope trace shows the input current Ii and the lower trace shows output current Is from secondary coil 5. The alternating current meter on the right shows input voltage Vp in the primary coil 3.

   Demonstration Video 9: Testing Change in Input Current ΔIi:
    changeInCurrents.WMV,
file size: 158 kilobytes.

The test results from video 9 experiment were: ΔIs=(0.19-0.06)V-p/0.35 ohm =0.37 ampere-peak, ΔIi=(0.27-0.28)V-p/0.5 ohm=-0.02 ampere-peak,
Np=410 turns, Ns=350 turns, ΔVp=10 V-p - 10.5 V-p=-0.5 volts-peak, load RL=0.7 ohm, bi=0.0 to 5 degrees, 0.03 metre>Ap÷hp>0.021 metre. V-p means volts-peak root mean square.

The ΔIi is the change in input current Ii produced by a change of output current ΔIs of output current Is. Transformer T current gain:

 Gi=(ΔIs÷ΔIi)×(Np÷Ns).

Then for the design of video 9, the Gi=22 amperes/ampere. Then the pseudo power gain of the variable core area transformer T is:

 Gw=Gv×Gi.

The real electric input power Wp into primary coil 3 is:

 Wp=Vp×Ii×cos bi,

where bi is the phase angle between the peaks of Vp and Ii. The real electric output power Ws from the secondary coil 5 is:

 Ws=Vs×Is×cos bs,

where bs is the phase angle between the peaks of Vs and Is which should be measured by an induction type alternating current watt-hour meter.
  If there are n number of transformers Tn, then the electrical current input into each transformer is Iin+1, and electrical input voltage to each primary coil is Vpn+1. Ii1 is electrical current input without an electrical transformer T when load RL is directly driven by Ii1.
Ii2=Ii1/2. The Nsn+1 is the number of coil wire turns of the primary coil of  nth non-uniform sectional area transformer Tn. Examples: bi=bs=20 degrees, Ii1=0.2 ampere-peak, Vp1=9 volts-peak. Figure 16 shows a different electrical transformer T shape. The primary coil 3 is the central coil, and secondary coil 5 is divided into two equal coils 5a and 5b. The secondary coils 5a and 5b have a core sectional areas that sum into Ao>Ap. The larger primary coil 3 core sectional area Ap is allowed to be larger in this design like in conventional electrical transformer designs. When the magnetic field strength Hp leaves the primary coil 3 iron core, it is divided into two. One half goes to coil 5a core and the other half goes into coil 5b core. Electrical power transfers less easily from the primary coil giving a magnetic amplifier.

Partial Toroid Transformer
This section may help explain some magnetic field flows in toroidal transformers or partial toroid transformer that has an air gap  in the toroid core. Figure 16 shows the basic toroidal transformer design with an air gap. The toroid transformer has a ferrous toroid core 2  with a small air gap 3 in figure 16(a). On the other side of the air gap 3 is the primary coil 4 for electrical input Vi4×Ii4 . The primary coil 4 receives electrical input current Ii4. There is a movable secondary coil 5 that can have its angular position ase relocated during the test. The secondary coil collected electromagnetic power from the electromagnetic field in toroid 2 and turns it into electrical output to drive  a light bulb 6. The air gap 3 then has at its centre a magnetic neutral zone 9. This magnetic neutral zone is from the electromagnetic field emitted by primary coil 4. Experiments shows that the electrical output Pout5 from secondary coil 5 is largest with secondary coil 5 is wound directly over the primary coil 4 in figure 16(a). The electrical power from the secondary coil 5 is least when the secondary coil 5 is furthest from primary coil 4 and is (secondary coil 5) over the air gap 3 as shows in figure 16(b). The electrical power output  is medium when the secondary coil 5 is half between the air gap 3 and primary coil 4 centre as shown in figure 16(c). Demonstration video 2c shows this. The light bulb 6 was brightest when secondary coil 5 is just next to primary coil 4, and then the light bulb is dimmest when close to the air gap 3 in video 2c.

  Toroidal Transformer With An Air Gap.
     Figure 16.

Graph 7 in figure 16(c) shows the output powers Pout5 through light bulb 6 from secondary coil 5 versus angular location ase  of centre of secondrary coil 5 relative to centre of primary coil 4.

    
Demonstration Video 2c: Toroidal Transformer With An Air Gap Test; 
      file size: 503 kilobytes .

The output power  as can be seen in the video seems to be:

  Pout5= Vi4×Ii4×cos (ase/2)+z.                                   (20)

The output wattage Pout5  in light bulb does not seem to change with the inverse of the square root of the distance between secondary coil 4 centre and primary coil 4 centre so that this equation (20) may perhaps be more accurate. At ase= 180 degrees, the secondary coil 5 centre is furthest from the primary coil and is over (or within) the air gap 3. This would indicate that electromagnetic field amplitude changes in one coil 4 can have reduced affects in another coil 5 electrical current at ase=180 degrees angular location. May perhap be able to use air gaps in toroidal cores in stationary magnetic field generator designs. Variable Bi4 can be electromagnetic field intensity vector at centre of primary coil 4. The electrical power Pout5  may perhaps be:

  Pout5A2 Bi4[(N÷(r2×ase ))+ (S÷(r2 ×(360º-ase )))]+z,

where N=+1 when secondary coil 5 is at the magnetic north pole, and S=-1 when seondary coil 5 is at the south magetic pole. This equation says that the electromagnetic field is also determined by the magnetic polarities N and S. The r2 is the radius of the toroid core 2.  The A2=W2 ×d2 is the surface area of the core 2 magnetic pole in figure 16(a). Variable y3 is the width of the air gap 3, and the output power reduced as air gap y3 increases as shown near the completion of video 2c such that:

  Pout5A2 Bi4[(N÷(r2×ase ))+ (S÷(r2 ×(360º-ase )))]÷y3 +z.

Test values: Vi4=9 volts-peak, Ii4= ampere-peak at f=60 hertz, 10 degrees<ase<180 degrees, Pout5=0.2 watt, W2= , d2= ,  y3=0.0003 metre. Imaginary examples: Bi4=0.005 tesla-peak ↑, z=Pout5 /7. 
   The magnetic field direction controlling gate may perhaps show the principle of magnetic amplification also.


Magnetic Field Direction Controlling Gate
The magnetic force Fx is weakest at the magnetic neutral zone 6 in figure 2T. Figure 2T shows the design of the experiment. The design has two similar ferrite magnets 2 and 3, that are spaced apart by a plastic or wood spacer 4. An iron sheet 5 is allowed to move freely in the x-axis direction in linear path 7 between the magnetic poles of magnets 2 and 3. The linear path 7 allows iron sheet 5 only to move in the magnetic field nuetral zone 6. Iron sheet 5 would be magnetically attracted two magnet 2 or 3. Demonstration video 2T shows the experiment of figure 2T. Can see from video 2T that there is generally very little magnetic force Fx in x-axis direction and towards the central axis 8 of magnetic field of By for thin sheets 5. Magnets 2 and 3 being similar have width W and depth d.

Magnetic Force Fx At Magnetic Nuetral Zone Demonstration Device
   Figure 2T.

 
Demonstration Video 2T: Force Fx Demonstration: forceFX.WMV,
   file size: 436 kilobytes
.

Demonstration video 3T (not available yet) experiment is similar to video 2T experiment except the iron sheet 5 thickness
Tp in video 3T is thicker.

  Demonstration Video 3T: 

Magnetic force Fx in the direction of movement of iron sheet 4 between magnetically attracting magnetic fields is defined mathematically as:

  FxBy×A×(cos a)×u ×uo×
Tp,
 FxA×(Σ(
By×cos ai)÷i)×u×uo×
Tp÷dp,               (2)

if the general direction of By is perpendicular to Fx direction in sheet 5. This is for small distances between iron sheet 5, and magnets 2 and 3 surfaces. Where By  is the magnetic field intensity of magnets 2 and 3 in the y axis direction and dp is the depth of iron sheet 5 that is parallel to direction d. The reason why variable dp is used in equation (2) is that reducing iron sheet 5 depth length dp bends magnetic flux lines of force toward iron sheet 5 and increases the magnetic flux line concentration in iron sheet 5 which increases force Fx . Variable a or ai is angle between the directions of Fx and By. The magnetic field lines from magnets 2 and 3 poles should bend towards the iron sheet 5 changing the angles ai. Variable
u is the electromagnetic permeability of iron sheet 5 that has thickness Tp. Symbol A represents the surface area of magnet 2 or magnet 3 that is perpendicular to By direction; A=W×d in this case. The direction By is tangent to magnetic line of force at the particular starting  point of vector By . The W  in this case is in the direction of x-axis. Some magnetic field lines of force do escape toward the sides of magnets 2 and 3 and this lines of force have magnetic field angles ai that do not equal to 90 degrees. Magnetic force F between a magnet and a sheet of iron 5 in general in figure 3T is:

  F=ABy2(cos ar82,
  FdBy2(cos ar82,
 
when magnetic field strengths Hv=Hv2, Hv=Hv3 of stator magnets 2 and 3 respectively are identical or nearly indentical. Where a is the angle between directions of F and By, and r8 is the distance between the iron sheet 5 and magnet. 

  Angle a Between Force F and Magnetic Field Vector By Directions

       Figure 3T.
  
  The mechanical energy Ux to move sheet 5 along distance sx in the
x-axis direction is:

 Ux=Fx×sx.

The dy is the distance between the facing pole surfaces of magnets 2 and 3 and is slightly larger than
Tp .
The magnetic flux lines tend to attach to iron shield 5 and cause the magnetic flux lines to bend when iron sheet 5 is moved. The larger the distance dy between magnets 2 and 3, the less easier the magnetic flux lines detach from iron sheet 5.This makes the angle a less than 90 degrees.
Imaginary examples: Fx=0.00010 newton → =F ,
By=0.02  telsa ↑ , Byi=0.02  telsa ↑,  a= 90 degrees,  u=200, Tp=0.0005 metre, sx= 0.0200 metre, A=0.0013 metre2=0.047 m.×0.022 m.,  d= 0.022 m.=dpuo=4π×10-7 tesla metre/ampere, Ux=0.000001 N. m., π= 3.141592654, 50 degrees<ai<90 degrees for i= 1 to 150 angles, dy=1.01×Tp  =  0.0091 metre. This design is based on John Ecklin's "Stationary Armature Generator" machine idea.
 

  Figure 4T.

 
  Figure 5T.

  Can use the transductor to generated a force Fy that has a direction perpendicular to the direction of Fx. Figure 6T shows the basic design. It has two stator magnets 2 and 3 with magnet lengths L 2 and L 3 respectively. Magnets 2 and 3 may have similar magnetic field intensites By at points at the centre of their surfaces A which (By) are independent on size of the magnets. It has a movable magnet 8 that is free to move up and down on a weight scale section 9 along the y-axis direction. The weight scale can be used to measure verticle force Fy. An iron plate 5 with dimensions a little larger than W and d can be inserted in the magnetic field nuetral zone between stator magnets 2 and 3 to vary the magnetic field strength
H v from the same magnets 2 and 3. Where Hv exists between magnets 3 and 8. Iron sheet 5 would be a magnetic field direction controlling gate. It send much of the magnetic field from magnet 2 into magnet 3. Variable ym is the distance between the surfaces of magnets 2 and 4 poles.


  Transductor As A Varying Force Generator.
   Figure 6T.
 
  Demonstration Video 4T: Force Fy Demonstration: forceFY.WMV, 
    file size:  kilobytes (not avaliable yet).

The verticle magnetic force Fy should be:

  Fy=Hv8 Hv÷r82,
  Fy=co Hv8 Hv÷r82,
  Hv=A By(L
2+L3),

where Hv8 is the magnetic field strength of magnet 8 and r8 is the distance between magnets 3 and 8 centres. The co is the ability of a magnet like magnet 3 to conduct another magnetic field through itself. The co=(Fv-Fv3Fv2;  the force Fv produced by two magnets 2 and 3 together, force Fv2 is force of magnet 2 alone and force Fv3 is force of magnet 3 alone. Magnet 2 length L2  is added to the length L 3 of magnet 3 with iron sheet 5 making magnets 2 and 3 somewhat operate as one magnet against movable magnet 8. The Hv8 would change the Hv of magnet 3, so that equation (2) may not apply. The Fx magnitude may be weaker than the Fy magnitude. The mechanical energy efficiency would then be:

 e=∫Fy dsy ÷ ∫Fx dsx,

with the x-axis origin on By
 axis. Where sy is the verticle displacement of magnet 8. Demonstration videos 2T and 3T shows that iron sheet 5 thicknes Tp produces little difference in forcesFx, and that most of the angles of ai are close to 90 degrees. This may perhaps indicate that mechanical efficiency e can be a little larger than 1 joule/joule. This means that if force Fx in direction a=90 degrees does not exist in above conditions, then changes in the force Fy is nearly a free magnetic force. Each Hv of both magnets 2 and 3 may not remain identical with changes in Hv8, so equations (2) may not apply. Fx amplitudes are much smaller than magnetic attraction force in direction of By even if magnetic field strengths of magnets 2 and 3 are not identical.  When displacement y is going downwards in this case the y is positive and for reverse displacement y, the y is negative (minus signed). The magnitudes Fx seem smaller than Fymagnitudes with iron sheet 5 in between and close  to magnets 2 and 3.
Imaginary examples: Fy=0.0007 newton ↓, Hv8=8×10-7 tesla metre3 , Hv=1×10-6 tesla metre3 ↑, r8=0.20 metre, L2=L3=0.008 metre, sy=0.006 metre ↓, e=0.9 N. m./N. m., dsy=0.006 metre, dsx=sx,   ym≈Tp,
ym≈Tp/2, Fv=0.2 newton , Fv2= 0.1 newton, Fv3=0.1 newton.
  There can be magnetic field intensity B
x from a second magnet that has a direction perpendicular to the direction of By in an iron core. The resultant vector when magnetic memory in iron core is neutralized is:

  Bo=o Bo=B
x+By

which also the orientation vector of an iron atom in the iron, where magnetic field intensity magnitudes:

  Bx=||B
x ||,
  By=||By
||,
  Bo=||Bo||.

Angle of resultant Bo from the y-axis:

  b= tan (Bx/By).

Output:

  Boy=Bo cos b.

Unit vector o can also represent the magnetic field orientation of an iron atom in the iron. Increasing the angle b would cause less magnetic field of By
 to travel through the iron by:
   
  Byy=By cos b.

This Byy  is the magnetic field intensity magnitude output through the iron and out of the iron along the y-axis

   


Imaginary examples: 1 degree< b< 60 degrees, B
x=0.02 tesla →.
   Similarly, this effect seems to be able to be done also by inserting a magnet between the poles of a C shaped iron core whose pole width is longer than the magnet's width W .  


Conclusion


References

1. The Motionless Electromagnetic Generator
    
http://www.cheniere.org/megstatus.htm .
2. The Manual of Free Energy Devices and Systems; by Don Kelly;
    from Cadake Industries
    Incorporated, Box:1866, Clayton, Georgia 30525.
2.
Stationary Armature Generator; By: Jown W. Ecklin;
    from: Rex Research, http://www.rexresearch.com.


November 21, 2003.
Updated on: 05-11- 2007.


By: Leonard Belfroy,
      Canada.